As a child he spent much of his time growing up in East Hampton; the family built a house on Hook Pond  there in the mids. There the boys— Howard, Charlie, Jim and Bill— "rode bikes, played with a model train set, [and] built elaborate underground forts.
Rivalry In the traditional economic model, competition among rival firms drives profits to zero. But competition is not perfect and firms are not unsophisticated passive price takers. Rather, firms strive for a competitive advantage over their rivals.
The intensity of rivalry among firms varies across industries, and strategic analysts are interested in these differences.
The Concentration Ratio CR is one such measure. A high concentration ratio indicates that a high concentration of market share is held by the largest firms - the industry is concentrated.
With only a few firms holding a large market share, the competitive landscape is less competitive closer to a monopoly. A low concentration ratio indicates that the industry is characterized by many rivals, none of which has a significant market share.
These fragmented markets are said to be competitive.
The concentration ratio is not the only available measure; the trend is to define industries in terms that convey more information than distribution of market share.
If rivalry among firms in an industry is low, the industry is considered to be disciplined. Explicit collusion generally is illegal and not an option; in low-rivalry industries competitive moves must be constrained informally. However, a maverick firm seeking a competitive advantage can displace the otherwise disciplined market.
When a rival acts in a way that elicits a counter-response by other firms, rivalry intensifies.
In pursuing an advantage over its rivals, a firm can choose from several competitive moves: Changing prices - raising or lowering prices to gain a temporary advantage.
Improving product differentiation - improving features, implementing innovations in the manufacturing process and in the product itself.
Creatively using channels of distribution - using vertical integration or using a distribution channel that is novel to the industry.
For example, with high-end jewelry stores reluctant to carry its watches, Timex moved into drugstores and other non-traditional outlets and cornered the low to mid-price watch market.
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Sears set high quality standards and required suppliers to meet its demands for product specifications and price. The intensity of rivalry is influenced by the following industry characteristics: A larger number of firms increases rivalry because more firms must compete for the same customers and resources.
The rivalry intensifies if the firms have similar market share, leading to a struggle for market leadership. Slow market growth causes firms to fight for market share.As the open source movement reaches the two-decade milestone, thoughts turn to the movement's achievements and future goals.
As your trusted resource, Spark provides news, stories, insights, and tips that can help you ignite the power of your people. Our goal is simple: To help you and your workforce be . In a nutshell. The EU Biodiversity Strategy aims to halt the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the EU and help stop global biodiversity loss by It reflects the commitments taken by the EU in , within the international Convention on Biological Diversity.
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Chapter Two - Strategy and Performance Chapter Three - Analyzing the External Strategic Environment Chapter Four - Analyzing an Industry Chapter Five - Analyzing an Organization's Strategic Resource Base Chapter Six - Formulating Business Unit Strategy Chapter Seven - Business Unit Strategy: Contexts and Special Dimensions Chapter Eight - Global Strategy Formulation Chapter Nine - .