Composition[ edit ] According to Mill's Autobiography, On Liberty was first conceived as a short essay in
James Mill, a Scotsman, had been educated at Edinburgh University—taught by, amongst others, Dugald Stewart—and had moved to London inwhere he was to become a friend and prominent ally of Jeremy Bentham and the Philosophical Radicals.
For this, at least, it prepared him well. Starting with Greek at age three and Latin at age eight, Mill had absorbed most of the classical canon by age twelve—along with algebra, Euclid, and the major Scottish and English historians.
In his early teenage years, he studied political economy, logic, and calculus, utilising his spare time to digest treatises on experimental science as an amusement.
At age fifteen—upon returning from a year-long trip to France, a nation he would eventually call John stuart mill 2 essay started work on the major treatises of philosophy, psychology and government.
All this was conducted under the strict daily supervision of his father—with young John holding primary responsibility for the education of his siblings Reeves The intensity of study and weight of expectation took its toll.
But he quickly found that his education had not prepared him for life. Though such episodes were to recur throughout his life, his initial recovery was found in the poetry of the Romantics. Mill particularly valued Wordsworth during this period—though his new interests quickly led him to the work of Coleridge, Carlyle, and Goethe.
His primary philosophic goal became, and would throughout his life remain, to integrate and reconcile these opposing schools of philosophy.
This new-found eclecticism also led to productive engagement with, amongst others, Francois Guizot, Auguste Comte, and Tocqueville.
Harriet Taylor Kinzer Mill met Harriet at a dinner party inand the two quickly fell in love. John Taylor died inwith Harriet and Mill marrying in —though not before the perceived scandal had caused a rift between Mill and many of his friends.
Mill felt first-hand the stifling effect of Victorian judgmentalism and oppressive norms of propriety—a subject he would later take up in On Liberty. Mill idolized Harriet, and credited her with virtual co-authorship of many of his works.
She died, however, inwhile Mill and she were travelling through France. Harriet was buried in Avignon, where Mill subsequently purchased a house close by the cemetery, and lived for the rest of his life. Mill inscribed on her grave that [s]he was the sole earthly delight of those who had the happiness to belong to her.
Mill had taken a position as a junior clerk at aged seventeen, working directly under his father, who had received the post on the basis of his authorship of A History of British India.
John rose through the ranks, eventually holding the position of Chief Examiner of Correspondence—a position roughly equivalent to Undersecretary of State, involving managing dispatches for colonial administration Zastoupil The job, Mill noted, provided the stability of income needed for an author without independent means, and was not so taxing as to prevent him exerting the majority of his time and mental energy on his philosophical pursuits.
In keeping with his views on distinction between representation and delegation, Mill declined to actively canvass for the seat—indeed, he remained, for most of the campaign, at his home in Avignon. While in the Commons, he championed what he perceived as unpopular but important causes: He did not win a second term, being defeated by in Kinzer, Robson, and Robson He died in Avignon on 7 Mayand was buried next to his wife.
It is not easy, however, to get a foothold on this naturalism. His account of knowledge, however, draws upon his general picture of mind, world, and their relation—and therefore depends on a theory of what there is. Relevant contrasts are, for instance, theists who hold that our minds have been given to us by an omnipotent and benevolent God for the purpose of comprehension, and idealists who hold that the mind has a formative role in constructing the world.
For such thinkers, a basic harmony between the architecture of mind and world might seem to be a given—as such, if our experience could be found to take a certain form, then we could infer facts about how the world must be composed.
Mill rejects this move. Such an inference would only be warrantable, if we could know a priori that we must have been created capable of conceiving whatever is capable of existing: Mill holds, therefore, that there can be no genuine a priori knowledge of objective facts.
Whewell on Moral Philosophy, X: Mill adds to it a psychological account of the underlying mechanism by which we form ideas.
|Browse By Author: M - Project Gutenberg||References and Further Reading 1. I do not expect to see anything like it again.|
|Mill, John Stuart | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy||An argument based on speculative physiology is just that, speculation.|
All of our ideas and beliefs, Mill holds, have their origins in sense impressions. Apparently a priori beliefs are subject to a similar undermining analysis. There are innumerable cases of Belief for which no cause can be assigned, except that something has created so strong an association between two ideas that the person cannot separate them in thought.
We have never perceived any object, or any portion of space, which had not other space beyond it.
And we have been perceiving objects and portions of space from the moment of birth. How then could the idea of an object, or of a portion of space, escape becoming inseparably associated with the idea of additional space beyond? Every instant of our lives helps to rivet this association, and we never have had a single experience tending to disjoin it.
But, an association, however close, between two ideas, is not a sufficient ground of belief; it is not evidence that the corresponding facts are united in external nature. Words denote the objects which they are true of; they connote specific attributes of those objects.John Stuart Mill caught this contradictory quality, with characteristic acuteness, in his essays on Jeremy Bentham () and Samuel Taylor Coleridge ().
Every contemporary thinker, he argued, was indebted to these two “seminal minds.” Yet Bentham, as the . Mill, John Stuart. - Filosofo ed economista (Londra - Avignone ). Figlio primogenito di James, che ne curò personalmente l'educazione, fu introdotto dal padre, in giovane età, nell'ambiente dei filosofi radicali.
Frequentò specialmente J. Bentham e studiò gli scritti di A. Smith e D. Ricardo. All'età di diciassette anni si impiegò nella . On Liberty is a philosophical work by the English philosopher John Stuart Mill, originally intended as a short essay. The work, published in , applies Mill's .
John Stuart Mill (–73) was the most influential English language philosopher of the nineteenth century. He was a naturalist, a utilitarian, and a liberal, whose work explores the consequences of a thoroughgoing empiricist outlook.
John Stuart Mill 's Ethical Theory Essay - On the other hand, when determining the morality of the act of giving money, John Stuart Mill’s utilitarian ethical theory would focus on consequences as well as two main components: deriving highest pleasure and avoiding pain for the majority (Mill 8).
Utilitarianism and On Liberty: Including Mill's 'Essay on Bentham' and Selections from the Writings of Jeremy Bentham and John Austin [John Stuart Mill, Mary Warnock] on r-bridal.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Including three of his most famous and important essays, Utilitarianism, On Liberty, and Essay onBentham.