I will post deeper, more detailed analyses soon. Please ensure that you get the exact titles from your ToK Teacher, I am unable to print the exact titles here for copyright reasons.
What are the necessary and sufficient conditions for S to know that p? We may distinguish, broadly, between a traditional and a non-traditional approach to answering this question. False propositions cannot be known.
Therefore, knowledge requires truth. A proposition S doesn't even believe can't be a proposition that S knows. Therefore, knowledge requires belief. Finally, S's being correct in believing that p might merely be a matter of luck.
Thus we arrive at a tripartite analysis of knowledge as JTB: S knows that p if and only if p is true and S is justified in believing that p. According to this analysis, the three conditions — truth, belief, and justification — are individually necessary and jointly sufficient for knowledge.
They diverge, however, as soon as we proceed to be more specific about exactly how justification is to fulfill this role. According to TK, S's belief that p is true not merely because of luck when it is reasonable or rational, from S's own point of view, to take p to be true.
According to evidentialism, what makes a belief justified in this sense is the possession of evidence. The basic idea is that a belief is justified to the degree it fits S's evidence.
NTK, on the other hand, conceives of the role of justification differently.
Its job is to ensure that S's belief has a high objective probability of truth and therefore, if true, is not true merely because of luck. One prominent idea is that this is accomplished if, and only if, a belief originates in reliable cognitive processes or faculties.
This view is known as reliabilism. There are cases of JTB that do not qualify as cases of knowledge. JTB, therefore, is not sufficient for knowledge. Cases like that — known as Gettier-cases[ 5 ] — arise because neither the possession of evidence nor origination in reliable faculties is sufficient for ensuring that a belief is not true merely because of luck.
Consider the well-known case of barn-facades: Henry drives through a rural area in which what appear to be barns are, with the exception of just one, mere barn facades. From the road Henry is driving on, these facades look exactly like real barns. Henry happens to be looking at the one and only real barn in the area and believes that there's a barn over there.
Henry's belief is justified, according to TK, because Henry's visual experience justifies his belief. According to NTK, his belief is justified because Henry's belief originates in a reliable cognitive process: Yet Henry's belief is plausibly viewed as being true merely because of luck.
Had Henry noticed one of the barn-facades instead, he would also have believed that there's a barn over there.Knowledge questions (11) and knowledge issues (12) Knowledge claims and knowledge questions Theory of knowledge guide 21 t Knowledge questions should be expressed in general terms, rather than using subject-specific terms.
For example, instead of a question focusing on a specific model in development economics, such. TOK essay – November * “There are no absolute distinctions between what is true and what is false.” “Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact. Everything we see is a perspective, not the truth.”.
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The seminar has an academic approach and important part of . Tok Essay - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. ESSAY IN THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE IB. Transcript of TOK presentation-Intuition.
The gut feeling is only the tip of the iceberg Intuition is a result of a subconscious mechanism! The nature of intuition in philosophy Intuition is a belief- we can have intuitive feelings about something only if we believe it exists (Lewis) Psychological studies and findings A surprising discovery in.