No set length Introduction and Student Guide This assessment item is to be completed individually.
When Johannes Topf founded the firm on 1 July he was already 62 years old. He owned his own brewery and had also worked in the fuel technology industry. He established the new company to sell a system for heating brewing coppers which he had invented and patented.
A fifth son died in childhood. He founded the firm against the advice of his sons, although the younger two sons, Julius and Ludwig, joined him. The two older brothers also joined the company in the late s, but they both died by the mids; Gustav, aged 40 and Albert, aged Johannes Topf died inand in Julius Topf stepped down to become a sleeping partner due to ill health, leaving Ludwig managing it on his own.
Byit was one of the largest firms of its type in the world, employing over staff and exporting to 50 countries.
His brother Julius died of blood poisoning later the same year. With the second generation of the Topf brothers all dead, Else TopfLudwig's widow, became the owner.
The firm's senior managers already had a lot independence and operations continued without any major upheaval. It prospered during World War I due to contracts for weapons shells and military vehicles.
Johanna, known as Hanna, ? When their father died, the two sons, aged 10 and 9, were sent away to a boarding school. The brothers later became the owners and managers of the firm during the Nazi period. After graduating from Hannover, he spent a further five years at LeipzigBerlin and Rostock universities, studying a wide range of subjects, including economics, law, and sociology.
Ernst also studied at Hannover, but took business studies.
He returned Erfurt to do two six-month internships, one in a bank and another in a malting company. He then joined Ludwig in Leipzig, studying at the Handelshochschule, now the Leipzig Graduate School of Managementgraduating in In the early s, due to the economic crisis of the Weimar Republicthe company lost business to such an extent that by Spring it was in danger of bankruptcy.
Because of this, at the end ofthe brothers were made redundant. They were banned from the company site, due to a rift with their mother, who would not speak to them, and because of political problems.
Elsa Topf was also estranged from her daughter, whose marriage she disapproved of. The Nazi party first gained seats in the German parliament in In the elections they became the second largest party; Hitler became chancellor in March The Topf brothers wanted to return and manage the firm, but at a company works council meeting on 30 Januarythey were labelled "Judengenossen" friends of Jews and not suitable to lead the company.
Else Topf supported this stance. The brothers, like their father, did have many good relationships with Jewish friends, neighbours and business contacts.
However, for appearances sake, they were persuaded to join the Nazi party, in April They were then permitted to return and were appointed joint managers, with Ludwig as the technical manager, and Ernst as the business manager.
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He developed a two-muffle transportable oven in Septemberwhich was delivered to Dachau concentration camp in November A 'muffle' is the incineration chamber where the body is put.
In order to improve the speed at which bodies burned, the muffles were internally joined, resulting in the ashes of individual bodies being mixed.
This was illegal, but all subsequent multi-muffle ovens built for the concentrations camps were designed in the same way. The unusually high numbers looked suspicious, so the SS wanted their own on-site facilities, although it was illegal for crematoria to be outside of local authority control.
One staff member, Martin Holich, spent almost 12 months in installing and repairing equipment at Auschwitz-Birkenau. Bodies were often pushed in four, five or even six at once. It is also thought that they supplied transportable ovens to at least one of the Nazi euthanasia institutionsin which a total of over 70, physically and mentally disabled people were murdered in and In Octoberthe SS placed an order for five three-muffle ovens for the new Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp Auschwitz IIwhere it was initially estimated that over people per day would die.
The SS were holdingSoviet prisoners of war in Auschwitz II, and it was calculated that with the use of the new ovens, they could all be killed and disposed of in about four months.Date: Nov 15, Re: Conveyor Belt Project Part Class: BA Part5: First quarter, Apr 1, We will determine how well each activity has gone from VAC.
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